CORTLAND – A Lakeview High School graduate is part of a NASA research team spending 10 days in the world’s only underwater research lab to help prepare for future space exploration.
Trevor Graff is part of the NEEMO (NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operations) 22 expedition to Aquarius, an underwater sea lab near Key Largo, Fla.
Graff, 40, a planetary scientist with the Astromaterials Research and Exploration Science Division at NASA’s Johnson Space Center, with another scientist, two technicians and two astronauts, are performing experiments and doing research in conditions similar to space, like the International Space Station.
Read more about Graff’s experience in Sunday’s Tribune Chronicle.
To watch a live feed of Graff and his crew, click here.
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Test Data Reveals Added Security for Future Manned Missions
ELKTON, Md.–(BUSINESS WIRE)–Orbital ATK (NYSE: OA), a global leader in aerospace and defense technologies, today announced that is has completed analysis of the critical components demonstrated in the Orion Launch Abort System Attitude Control Motor (ACM) test conducted at the company’s Elkton, Maryland, facility. Results from the test indicate the motor’s HT-11 ‘High Thrust’ test was fully successful.
The ACM consists of a solid propellant gas generator and eight equally-spaced valves capable of providing 7,000 lbs. of thrust in any direction. The HT-11 test used a three-valve version of the ACM to verify the latest design improvements. Orbital ATK recently completed a physical review of all test hardware and an analysis of all test data to confirm that the improvements performed as expected. This key milestone clears the way for the ACM to enter into the qualification phase of the program. Three qualification units will undergo additional static testing in 2018 and 2019, also at Orbital ATK’s controllable propulsion center of excellence in Elkton. Founded in 1948, the 550-acre facility employs more than 400 employees, principally engaged in engineering and manufacturing. It is recognized as an AIAA Historic Aerospace Site.
“For decades, Orbital ATK has been an important component of Maryland’s thriving aerospace industry and of America’s accomplishments in space,” said Maryland Commerce Secretary Mike Gill. “This collaboration between NASA, Lockheed Martin, and Orbital ATK not only illustrates the strength of aerospace in Maryland, but also advances space exploration far beyond our horizon.”
The launch abort system (LAS), which is being developed by Lockheed Martin for NASA’s Orion spacecraft, will protect the astronaut crew on the launch pad and during ascent. Orion is being built to take humans farther than they’ve ever gone before. NASA is building a flexible, reusable and sustainable capability and infrastructure beyond the moon that will last multiple decades and support missions of increasing complexity. Orbital ATK is providing key propulsion subsystems for the LAS, including an advanced ACM to safely control the LAS during the main abort phase and to reposition the capsule for descent and parachute release.
About Orbital ATK
Orbital ATK is a global leader in aerospace and defense technologies. The company designs, builds and delivers space, defense and aviation systems for customers around the world, both as a prime contractor and merchant supplier. Its main products include launch vehicles and related propulsion systems; missile products, subsystems and defense electronics; precision weapons, armament systems and ammunition; satellites and associated space components and services; and advanced aerospace structures. Headquartered in Dulles, Virginia, Orbital ATK employs approximately 12,500 people in 18 states across the U.S. and in several international locations. For more information, visit www.orbitalatk.com.
Elon Musk has never been one to keep his long-term plans to himself. Beyond the development of reusable rockets, electric cars, and revolutionizing solar power, he has also been quite vocal about establishing a colony on Mars within his lifetime. The goal here is nothing less than ensuring the survival of the human race by creating a “backup location”, and calls for some serious planning and architecture.
The paper was produced by Scott Hubbard, a consulting professor at Stanford University and the Editor-in-Chief of NewSpace, and includes all the material and slides from Musk’s original presentation. Contained within are Musk’s thoughts on how the colonization of Mars could be accomplished in this century and what issues would need to be addressed.
Elon Musk revealing his Mars Plans at the 67th annual meetings of the IAC. Credit: SpaceX/IAC
These include the costs of sending people and payloads to Mars, the technical details of the rocket and vehicle that would be making the trip, and possible cost breakdowns and timelines. But of course, he also addresses the key philosophical questions – “Why go?” and “Why Mars?”
Addressing this first question is one of the most important aspects of space exploration. Remember John F. Kennedy’s iconic “We Choose to go to the Moon” speech? Far from just being a declaration of intent, this speech was a justification by the Kennedy administration for all the time, energy, and money it was committing to the Apollo program. As such, Kennedy’s speech stressed above all else why the goal was a noble undertaking.
In looking to Mars, Musk struck a similar tone, emphasizing survival and humanity’s need to expand into space. As he stated:
“I think there are really two fundamental paths. History is going to bifurcate along two directions. One path is we stay on Earth forever, and then there will be some eventual extinction event. I do not have an immediate doomsday prophecy, but eventually, history suggests, there will be some doomsday event. The alternative is to become a space-bearing civilization and a multi-planetary species, which I hope you would agree is the right way to go.”
As for what makes Mars the natural choice, that was a bit more of a tough sell. Granted, Mars has a lot of similarities with Earth – hence why it is often called “Earth’s Twin” – which makes it a tantalizing target for scientific research. But it also has some rather stark differences that make long-term stays on the surface seem less than appealing. So why would it be the natural choice?
Artist’s rendition of a passenger aboard the ITS looking down on Mars. Credit: SpaceX
As Musk explains, proximity has a lot to do with it. Sure, Venus is closer to Earth, getting as close as 41 million km (25,476,219 mi), compared to 56 million km (3,4796,787 mi) with Mars. But Venus’ hostile environment is well-documented, and include a super-dense atmosphere, temperatures hot enough to melt lead and sulfuric acid rain! Mercury is too hot and airless, and the Jovian moons are very far.
This leaves us with just two options for the near-future, as far as Musk is concerned. One is the Moon, which is likely to have a permanent settlement on it in the coming years. In fact, between the ESA, NASA, Roscosmos, and the Chines National Space Administration, there is no shortage of plans to build a lunar outpost, which will serve as a successor to the ISS.
But compared to Mars, it is less resource rich, has no atmosphere, and represents a major transition as far as gravity (0.165 g compared to 0.376 g) and length of day (28 days vs. 24.5 hours) are concerned. Herein lies the greatest reason to go to Mars, which is the fact that our options are limited and Mars is the most Earth-like of all the bodies that are currently accessible to us.
What’s more, Musk makes allowances for the fact that colonists could start kick-starting the terraforming process, to make it even more Earth-like over time. As he states (bold added for emphasis):
“In fact, we now believe that early Mars was a lot like Earth. In effect, if we could warm Mars up, we would once again have a thick atmosphere and liquid oceans. Mars is about half as far again from the Sun as Earth is, so it still has decent sunlight. It is a little cold, but we can warm it up. It has a very helpful atmosphere, which, being primarily CO2 with some nitrogen and argon and a few other trace elements, means that we can grow plants on Mars just by compressing the atmosphere.
“It would be quite fun to be on Mars because you would have gravity that is about 37% of that of Earth, so you would be able to lift heavy things and bound around. Furthermore, the day is remarkably close to that of Earth. We just need to change the populations because currently we have seven billion people on Earth and none on Mars.”
Naturally, no mission can be expected to happen without the all-important vehicle. To this end, Musk used the annual IAC meeting to unveil his company’s plans for the Interplanetary Transport System. An updated version of the Mars Colonial Transporter (which Musk began talking about in 2012), the ITS will consist of two main components – a reusable rocket booster and the Interplanetary Spaceship.
The process for getting to Mars with these components involves a few steps. First, the rocket booster and spaceship take off together and the spaceship is delivered into orbit. Next, while the spaceship assumes a parking orbit, the booster returns to Earth to be reloaded with the tanker craft. This vehicle is the same design as the spaceship, but contains propellant tanks instead of cargo areas.
The tanker is then launched into orbit with the booster, where it will rendezvous with the spaceship and refuel it for the journey to Mars. Overall, the propellant tanker will go up anywhere from three to five times to fill the tanks of the spacecraft while it is in orbit. Musk estimates that the turnaround time between the spacecraft launch and the booster retrieval could eventually be as low as 20 minutes.
This process (if Musk gets its way) would expand to include multiple spaceships making the journey to and from Mars every 26 months (when Mars and Earth are closest together):
“You would ultimately have upwards of 1,000 or more spaceships waiting in orbit. Hence, the Mars Colonial fleet would depart en masse. It makes sense to load the spaceships into orbit because you have got 2 years to do so, and then you can make frequent use of the booster and the tanker to get really heavy reuse out of those. With the spaceship, you get less reuse because you have to consider how long it is going to last—maybe 30 years, which might be perhaps 12–15 flights of the spaceship at most.”
In terms of the rocket’s structure, it would consist of an advanced carbon fiber exterior surrounding fuel tanks, which would rely on an autogenous pressurization system. This involves the fuel and oxygen being gasified through heat exchanges in the engine, which would then be used to pressurize the tanks. This is a much simpler system than what is currently being used for the Falcon 9 rocket.
The booster would use 42 Raptor engines arranged in concentric rings to generate thrust. With 21 engines in the outer ring, 14 in the inner ring, and seven in a center cluster, the booster would have an estimated lift-off thrust of 11,793 metric tons (13,000 tons) – 128 MegaNewtons – and a vacuum thrust of 12,714 metric tons (14,015 tons), or 138 MN. This would make it the first spacecraft where the rocket performance bar exceeds the physical size of the rocket.
As for the spacecraft, the designs calls for a pressurized section at the top with an unpressurized section beneath. The pressurized section would hold up to 100 passengers (thought Musk hopes to eventually increase that capacity to 200 people per trip), while all the luggage and cargo necessary for building the Martian colony would be kept in the unpressurized section below.
As for the crew compartments themselves, Musk was sure to illustrate how time in them would not be boring, since the transit time is a long. “Therefore, the crew compartment or the occupant compartment is set up so that you can do zero-gravity games – you can float around,” he said. “There will be movies, lecture halls, cabins, and a restaurant. It will be really fun to go. You are going to have a great time!”
The system architecture of the Interplanetary Transport System. Credit: SpaceX
Below both these sections, the liquid oxygen tank, fuel tank and spacecraft engines are located. The engines, which would be directly attached to the thrust cone at the base, would consists of an outer ring of three sea-level engines – which would generate 361 seconds of specific impulse (Isp) – and an inner cluster of six vacuum engines that would generate 382s Isp.
The exterior of the spacecraft will also be fitted with a heatshield, which will be composed of the same material that SpaceX uses on its Dragon spacecraft. This is known as a phenolic-impregnated carbon ablator (PICA), which SpaceX is on their third version of. In total, Musk estimates that the Interplanetary Spaceship will be able to transport 450 tons of cargo to Mars, depending upon how many times the tanker can refill the craft.
And, depending on the Earth-Mars rendezvous, the transit time could be as little as 80 days one-way (figuring for a speed of 6km/s). But with time, Musk hopes to cut that down to just 30 days, which would make it possible to establish a sizable population on Mars in a relatively short amount of time. As Musk indicated, the magic number here in 1 million, meaning the number of people it would take to establish a self-sustaining colony on Mars.
He admitted that this would be a major challenge, and could as long as a century to complete:
“If you can only go every 2 years and if you have 100 people per ship, that is 10,000 trips. Therefore, at least 100 people per trip is the right order of magnitude, and we may end up expanding the crew section and ultimately taking more like 200 or more people per flight in order to reduce the cost per person. However, 10,000 flights is a lot of flights, so ultimately you would really want in the order of 1,000 ships. It would take a while to build up to 1,000 ships. How long it would take to reach that million-person threshold, from the point at which the first ship goes to Mars would probably be somewhere between 20 and 50 total Mars rendezvous—so it would take 40–100 years to achieve a fully self-sustaining civilization on Mars.”
Cutaway of the Interplanetary Spaceship. Credit: SpaceX
When the ITS is ready to launch, it will do so from Launch Pad 39A at the Kennedy Space Center in Florida, which SpaceX currently uses to conduct Falcon 9 launches from. But of course, the most daunting aspect of any colonization effort is cost. At present, and using current methods, sending upwards of 1 million people to Mars is simply not affordable.
Using Apollo-era methods as a touchstone, Musk indicated that the cost to go to Mars would be around $10 billion per person – which is derived from the fact that the program itself cost between $100 and $200 billion (adjust for inflation) and resulted in 12 astronauts setting foot on the Moon. Naturally, this is far too high for the sake of creating a self-sustaining colony with a population of 1 million.
As a result, Musk claimed that the cost of transporting people to Mars would have to be cut by a whopping 5 million percent! Musk’s desire to lower the costs associated with space launches is well-known, and is the very reason he founded SpaceX and began developing reusable technology. However, costs would need to be lowered to the point where a ticket to Mars would cost about the same as a median house – i.e. $200,000 – before any trips to Mars could happen.
Artist’s impression of the ITS in transit, with its solar arrays deployed. Credit: SpsaceX
As to how this could be done, several strategies are outlined, many of which Musk and space agencies like NASA are already actively pursuing. They include full Reusability, where all stages of a rocket and its cargo module (not just the first stage) would have to be retrievable and reusable. Refueling in Orbit is a second means, which would mean the spacecraft would not have to carry all the fuel they need with them from Earth.
On top of that, there would have to be the option for propellant Production on Mars, where the spaceship will be able to refuel at Mars to make the return trip. This concept has been explored in the past for lunar and Martian missions. And in Mars’ case, the presence of atmospheric and frozen CO², and water in both the soil and the polar ice caps, would mean that methane, oxygen and hydrogen fuel could all be manufactured.
Lastly, there is the question of which propellant would be best. As it stands, there are there basic choices when it comes – kerosene (rocket fuel), hydrogen, and methane. All of these present certain advantages and can be manufactured in-situ on Mars. But based on a cost-benefit breakdown, Musk claims that methane would be the most cost-effective propellant.
As always, Musk also raised the issue of timelines and next steps. This consisted of a rundown of SpaceX’s accomplishments over the past decade and a half, followed by an outline of what he hopes to see his company do in the coming years and decades.
Artist impression of a Mars settlement with cutaway view. Credit: NASA Ames Research Center
These include the development of the first Interplanetary Spaceship in about four years time, which will be followed by suborbital test flights. He even hinted how the spacecraft could have commercial applications, being used for the rapid transportation of cargo around the world. As for the development of the booster, he indicated that this would be a relatively straightforward process since it simply involves scaling up the existing Falcon 9 booster.
Beyond that, he estimated that (assuming all goes well) a ten-year time frame would suffice for putting all the components together so that it would work for bringing people to Mars. Last, but not least, he offered some glimpses of what could be accomplished with ITS beyond Mars. As the name suggests, Musk is hoping to conduct missions to other destination in the Solar System someday.
Given the opportunities for in-situ fuel production (thanks to the abundance of water ice), the moons of both Jupiter and Saturn were mentioned as possible destination. But beyond moons like Europa, Enceladus, and Titan (all of which were mentioned), even destinations in the trans-Neptunian region of the Solar System were indicated as a possibility.
Given that Pluto also has an abundance of water ice on its surface, Musk claimed that a refueling depot could be built here to service missions to the Kuiper Belt and Oort Cloud. “I would not recommend this for interstellar journeys,” he admitted, “but this basic system—provided we have filling stations along the way—means full access to the entire greater solar system.”
Artist’s impression of the ITS conducting a flyby of Jupiter. Credit: SpaceX
The publication of this paper, many months after Musk presented the details of his plan to the annual IAC meeting, has naturally generated both approval and skepticism. While there are those who would question Musk’s timelines and his ability to deliver on the proposals contained within, others see it as a crucial step in the fulfillment of Musk’s long-held desire to see the colonization of Mars happen in this century.
To Scott Hubbard, it serves as a valuable contribution to the history of space exploration, something that future generations will be able to access so they can chart the history of Mars exploration – much in the same way NASA archival materials are used to study the history of the Moon landing. As he remarked:
“In my view, publishing this paper provides not only an opportunity for the spacefaring community to read the SpaceX vision in print with all the charts in context, but also serves as a valuable archival reference for future studies and planning. My goal is to make New Space the forum for publication of novel exploration concepts-particularly those that suggest an entrepreneurial path for humans traveling to deep space.”
Elon Musk is no stranger to thinking big and dreaming big. And while many of his proposals in the past did not come about in the time frame he originally specified, no one can doubt that he’s delivered so far. It will be very exciting to see if he can take the company he founded 15 years ago for the sake of fostering the exploration of Mars, and use it instead to lead a colonization effort!
Update: Musk tweeted his thanks to Hubbard for the publication and has indicated that there are some “major changes to the plan coming soon.”
And be sure to check out this video of Musk’s full speech at the 67th annual meeting of the IAC, courtesy of SpaceX:
Matt Williams is the Curator of Universe Today’s Guide to Space. He is also a freelance writer, a science fiction author and a Taekwon-Do instructor. He lives with his family on Vancouver Island in beautiful British Columbia.
Earth observation of the space environment taken during a night pass by Dr. Kjell Lindgren of the Expedition 44 crew during Scott Kelly’s One-Year Mission aboard the International Space Station (ISS). An aurora with purple and SSRMS arm are visible.
Earth observation of the space environment taken during a night pass by Dr. Kjell Lindgren of the Expedition 44 crew during Scott Kelly’s One-Year Mission aboard the International Space Station (ISS). An aurora with purple and SSRMS arm are visible.
In each life a little rain must fall, but in space, one of the biggest risks to astronauts’ health is radiation “rain.” NASA’s Human Research Program (HRP) is simulating space radiation on Earth following upgrades to the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) at the U.S. Department of Energy’s Brookhaven National Laboratory. These upgrades help researchers on Earth learn more about the effects of ionizing space radiation to help keep astronauts safe on a journey to Mars.
Radiation is one of the most dangerous risks to humans in space, and one of the most challenging to simulate here on Earth. The risk to human health significantly increases when astronauts travel beyond Lower Earth Orbit (LEO) outside the magnetosphere. The magnetosphere shields Earth from solar particle events (SPEs) and radiation caused by the sun and galactic cosmic rays (GCR) produced by supernova fragments. Radiation particles like ions can be dangerous to humans because they can pass through skin, depositing energy and damaging cells or DNA along the way. This damage can increase the risk for diseases later in life or cause radiation sickness during the mission.
Radiation may cause damage to the central nervous system, cardiovascular system, and circulatory system of astronauts. There is evidence that humans exposed to large doses of radiation from radiotherapy experience cognitive and behavioral changes, and recent studies suggest these risks may occur at lower doses for GCR creating a possible risk for operating a space vehicle. Space environment variables (Ex. microgravity, CO2, lack of sleep, etc.) which produce stress could interact with radiation in a synergistic fashion exacerbating the impacts.
With the recent upgrades to the NSRL, NASA is improving its ability to understand the effects of radiation on the body. The most notable upgrades were made to the GCR simulator, which was recently highlighted in ScienceDirect.
“There is ample research on acute effects of radiation exposure but very little on latent effects, and the latter more closely resembles the health effects expected from long duration space flight,” Lisa Carnell, Ph.D., Medical Countermeasure Lead for NASA Space Radiation said. “Imagine ion trajectories to be similar to rain; sometimes there is a downpour (solar particle event) and sometimes there a light drizzle or heavy, sparse droplets (similar to galactic cosmic radiation). With the upgrades we can simulate different types of ion rain with multiple types of ions sequentially versus only one type of ion at a time.”
The GCR upgrades enable researchers to rapidly switch ion types and energy intensities. To support these improvements, software controls were added to permit smooth movement from target to target. The cooling system in one of the Electron Beam Ion Source, or EBIS magnets was upgraded to handle higher energy currents. In addition, new probes were installed in two of the beamline’s magnets to speed up setting changes.
Before these upgrades, switching radiation beams was not an easy or efficient process in the NSRL. The lab was originally designed to harness ions from Brookhaven’s Booster accelerator, which produces all species of ions within a range of energies. Now switching ion species and energies can be done in minutes. More realistic studies and radiation countermeasure tests are conducted because investigators can better simulate the space environment.
The improvements in beam energy enable coverage of a greater part of the GCR spectrum. The larger beam makes it possible to radiate numerous samples at once and increase throughput and efficiency. Precision control also increases the accuracy for dose delivery. Uniformity of the radiation field intensity also reduces uncertainties in dose deliveries.
This results in a more accurate testing environment for NASA researchers who are developing various types of shielding materials to protect astronauts from radiation. HRP investigators can use the technology to test tissue samples leading to health countermeasures to protect against molecular damage. Cancer researchers also can explore various heavy ion therapies to eradicate tumors. The NSRL is one of the few labs in the United States capable of contributing to heavy ion radiotherapy research. Users from NASA, national laboratories, and more than 50 institutions and universities in the U.S., Europe, and Japan test medical, biological, and physical samples using the NSRL ion beam line.
As NASA prepares for sending humans farther and longer than ever before, space radiation research continues to advance our understanding of the risks to the human body. It takes innovative research on the Earth to support innovative research in space. And if the rainy day does come, NASA will be prepared.
NASA’s Human Research Program (HRP) is dedicated to discovering the best methods and technologies to support safe, productive human space travel. HRP enables space exploration by reducing the risks to human health and performance using ground research facilities, the International Space Station, and analog environments. This leads to the development and delivery of a program focused on: human health, performance, and habitability standards; countermeasures and risk mitigation solutions; and advanced habitability and medical support technologies. HRP supports innovative, scientific human research by funding more than 300 research grants to respected universities, hospitals and NASA centers to over 200 researchers in more than 30 states.
John W. Norbury, Walter Schimmerling, Tony C. Slaba, Edouard I. Azzam, Francis F. Badavi, Giorgio Baiocco, Eric Benton, Veronica Bindi, Eleanor A. Blakely, Steve R. Blattnig, David A. Boothman, Thomas B. Borak, Richard A. Britten, Stan Curtis, Michael Dingfelder, Marco Durante, William S. Dynan, Amelia J. Eisch, S. Robin Elgart, Dudley T. Goodhead, Peter M. Guida, Lawrence H. Heilbronn, Christine E. Hellweg, Janice L. Huff, Amy Kronenberg, Chiara La Tessa, Derek I. Lowenstein, Jack Miller, Takashi Morita, Livio Narici, Gregory A. Nelson, Ryan B. Norman, Andrea Ottolenghi, Zarana S. Patel, Guenther Reitz, Adam Rusek, Ann-Sofie Schreurs, Lisa A. Scott-Carnell, Edward Semones, Jerry W. Shay, Vyacheslav A. Shurshakov, Lembit Sihver, Lisa C. Simonsen, Michael D. Story, Mitchell S. Turker, Yukio Uchihori, Jacqueline Williams, Cary J. Zeitlin. Galactic cosmic ray simulation at the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory. Life Sciences in Space Research, 2016; 8: 38 DOI: 10.1016/j.lssr.2016.02.001
File Name: Challenges of Human Space Exploration Total Downloads: 21415 Formats: djvu | pdf | epub | mp3 | kindle Rated: 7.2/10 (61 votes)
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NASA Mars Rover: NASA has successfully operated six unmanned landing craft and vehicles on the Martian surface, since the first one landed there more than 40 years ago. CBS News’ Omar Villafranca takes a look inside what a future, manned Mars rover might look like. (Photo : YouTube / CBS This Morning )
Like everyone, most astronomers are quite curious to reveal the unknown secret about our neighboring planet Mars. Regarding this, NASA conducted several exploring missions with several orbiters, Lander, and rovers with a lot of technical instruments. Now, it’s time to meet the new NASA Mars Rover.
In 1975, NASA successfully got the first image of Mars surface from Viking-1 space lander under Viking space program. Among all robotic space exploration vehicle, the rover (or sometimes planetary rover) is one of the most effective experimental vehicles for the better understanding of a planet by exploring on its surface. Most recently, NASA sent Curiosity, a car-sized robotic rover exploring Gale Crater on Mars.
New NASA Mars Rover
Recently, NASA is looking forward to a Mars rover mission by NASA’s Mars Exploration Program with a planned scheduled in 2020. Before that, NASA introduced a conceptual design of a next generation Mars rover this week for the 2020 mission.
The design concept of this next-gen Mars rover is based on the futuristic motorcycle of the Hollywood movie, “Tron.” Most notably, this next-gen Mars rover is not a robotic rover but designated to be operated by an onboard passenger.
Structural Design And Features Of Next-gen NASA Mars Rover:
According to CBC News, the conceptual model of next-gen Mars rover has a very distinct structural appearance, which could resemble an extraterrestrial vehicle. The six-wheeled vehicle has the length of 24 feet, with the height of 11 feet and interior space has 13 feet wide area.
The total construction and design is the brainchild of the Parker brothers, Shannon and Marc. During an interview, Mark explained that every part of the body, the chassis, the suspension, the wheels, the frame, the interior, the seats, and the glass of this vehicle had to be built completely from scratch.
The interior design of this Mars Rover closely resembles a Sports Utility Vehicle (SUV) with four seats. However, the Parker brothers are working on the further study to improve, according to NASA’s requirements.
This vehicle is designated to drive on rough terrain and easily climb over any rocky obstacle. This vehicle is also added with a distinct feature to drive smoothly on deep sand without getting stuck, per Inquisitr.
Future Planning And Application
In fact, this concept vehicle not builds for the direct mission to Mars but used as a simulation to educate future scientists about the red planet. According to astronaut Jon McBride, putting the first man or woman on Mars is closer than previous thought. He aspired that somewhere within eight to 18 years manned mission on the red planet will become a reality.